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No To Hattatsu. 2001 jan;33 (1) : 37-43
Shiragaki J, Iwasaki N, Nakayama J, Fujita K, Ohto T, Matsui A.
University of Tsukuba

Bone Mineral density and motor function in children with CP

"BMD in the pelvis and lower limbs were higher in walking patients than bed-ridden, rolling and crawling patients"
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Nippon Seikeigeka Gakkai Zasshi. 1993 Jan;67 (1):1-11
Yamaguchi O.
Tohoku University School of Medicine

Radiological Study of the hip joint in cerebral palsy

"The incidence of dislocations of the hip joints was more frequent in patients who were incapable of weight bearing than in patients who were capable of weight bearing......the present investigator has concluded that femoral neck becomes valgus with an increased anteversion in longstanding CP patients who are especially unable to stand or walk."
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Acta Orthop. 2006 Feb;77(1):125-31
Terjesen T.
Department of Orthopedics, Rikshospitalet University Hospital

Development of the hip joints in un-operated children with cerebral palsy: a radiographic study of 76 patients

"There is a pronounced trend toward displacement of the hips in quadriplegic CP patients who are under 5 years of age and cannot walk."
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J Pediatric Orthop. 1993 mar-Apr;13(2):192-9
Laplazaq FJ, Root L, Tassanawipas A, Glasser DB
Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York

Femoral torsion and neck-shaft angles in cerebral palsy

"Our findings suggest that age and ambulatory status are the main factors correlated with FT and NSA"
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Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2000 Dec;(381): 295-6
Bobroff ED, Chambers HG, Sartoris DJ, Wyatt MP, Sutherland DH
School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego

Femoral anteversion and neck shaft angle in children with cerebral palsy

"The angles of femoral anteversion were similar at early ages between healthy children and children with cerebral palsy. However, as the age of the children increased those with cerebral palsy showed little change in anteversion angle, whereas the healthy children had progressively decreasing angle of femoral anteversion.....neck-shaft angle was increased significantly in children with cp compared with the angles of healthy children. Patients who were ambulatory were shown to have an increased angle of femoral anteversion and a decreased neck-shaft angle compared with non-ambulatory patients."
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Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 1975 Apr;113 (2) : 181-8
Feldkamp M Datthagen EW
Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb

Results of surgical correction of flexion contractures of the knee joint in CP children (Author's transl)

"Investigation of the causes for not walking showed the importance of motor preconditioning. Only children who had knee-standing before operation learned free walking. Major lack of motor development was most frequently preventing walking."
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